A natural alternative for sneeze and sniffle prevention
Perhaps you know it for its distinct flower – a pronounced brown central cone, surrounded by delicate purple petals – and its common botanical name, purple coneflower. Or maybe, you know it as a natural remedy to take for protection against the sniffles and sneezes of cold and flu season. As a common North American wildflower, Echinacea purpurea undoubtedly has crossed your path at some point, be it on a summer stroll through the prairies of the Midwest, or as a tea or tincture you took when feeling a tingle in the throat or heaviness in your lungs.
Echinacea spp. is one of the earliest botanicals that North American European settlers learned of from the indigenous inhabitants.
Echinacea spp. is one of the earliest botanicals that North American European settlers learned of from the indigenous inhabitants of the region who made use of its aerial parts for ailments ranging from toothache to snakebites to gastrointestinal distress to rheumatism. Research in the early 1900s pointed toward the use of echinacea for pyogenic infections, including treatment of tuberculosis and infections attributed to Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp.
Fast-forward to 2020, and a world more aware of infectious disease than the majority of us have ever been in our lifetime. In addition to considering the importance of essential vitamins and minerals and how they may impact immune function and infection resistance, certain botanicals such as echinacea also have had increased use simply for what we know them for: prevention of the common, cold-related sniffles and sneezes. In this article, we take a look at the science backing echinacea for the common cold and recurrent respiratory tract infections.
The many forms of echinacea
In addition to Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia are common species of echinacea that are used medicinally. Preparations of echinacea can be found that use all the aerial parts (found above the ground), just the flowers, only the roots, or a combination of these fractions. Common extraction techniques include pressing the fresh aerial parts or flowers for their juice, which is then usually dried for inclusion in tablets or capsules, or the use of alcohol to extract a greater portion of the more fat-soluble (lipophilic) substances.
Many compounds found in echinacea contribute to its bioactivity. Alcohol extractions typically contain higher levels of the lipophilic alkylamides and polyacetylenes while the pressed juices or water extracts contain more arabinogalactans and polysaccharides., Although some prefer a traditional alcohol extraction, others have preference for the fresh-pressed juice. Both have been demonstrated to have antiviral activity.
Echinacea and the immune system
As early as 1915, studies demonstrated that the power of echinacea perhaps stemmed from its ability to stimulate immune system function. Observations at that time suggested echinacea increased the phagocytic power of leukocytes. Modern research reinforces these findings, with cell studies showing that echinacea stimulates macrophage production of cytokines and nitric oxide, a typical defensive response to an infectious trigger, also promoting T cell proliferation and enhancing T cell activity.,,, In animals and humans, echinacea preparations have also been shown to increase white blood cell counts.,,
Although at one time echinacea was ubiquitously referred to as an immunostimulant, we now increasingly find it described as having immunomodulatory activity.
Although at one time echinacea was ubiquitously referred to as an immunostimulant, we now increasingly find it described as having immunomodulatory activity. In addition to the immunostimulatory activity described here and elsewhere,4 preparations of echinacea have been observed to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects as well.5,, In animals, echinacea has been shown to enhance overall longevity, also increasing survival of immunosuppressed animals in settings of typically lethal bacterial and fungal infections.
Echinacea and the common cold
We see much of the clinical research surrounding echinacea focused on its effects in prevention and/or treatment of the common cold. In a 2006 Cochrane review of echinacea for the treatment or prevention of colds, a significant effect for treatment of cold was seen in nine studies, with a trend seen in one, and no effect seen in six. Two large meta-analysis also found supplementation with echinacea to be of benefit, showing that the likelihood of experiencing cold symptoms was 55% to 58% higher in individuals not taking echinacea and that cold duration was an average of 1.4 days shorter in those taking echinacea.,
Echinacea, taken daily for four months, was found to reduce the total number of cold episodes, number of “episode” days, and use of painkillers for treatment of cold symptoms.
In a four-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 755 healthy adults, echinacea, taken daily throughout the four-month period, was found to reduce the total number of cold episodes, number of “episode” days, and use of painkillers for treatment of cold symptoms. Echinacea was taken three times daily for the purpose of prevention, and participants were instructed to increase dosing to five times a day with acute symptoms. Noteworthy was the effect echinacea had on recurrent infections, and the study found the preventative effects increased with treatment compliance. Sampling of nasal secretions with the occurrence of symptoms found that echinacea was particularly effective for colds due to enveloped viral infections. This study is of particular interest because echinacea is typically seen as a botanical for acute use – but clearly, it has benefits for prevention when taken regularly for longer periods.
Clinical studies also reflect the effectiveness of echinacea with typical acute use, with high, frequent dosing at the onset of an infection and continued for a short duration thereafter. In one such study, participants were instructed to take echinacea eight times daily on the first day they experienced cold symptoms, and three times daily the six following days. With this protocol, echinacea was shown to decrease total daily symptom scores compared to placebo on all days after day one. Levels of neutrophils were higher in those receiving echinacea than placebo when assessed on days 3 and 8, and at day 8 remained significantly higher than baseline only in the echinacea group. However, the neutrophil oxidative burst capacity, associated with free radical generation, was significantly lower in the group receiving echinacea than placebo at day 8, and, although not significant, the echinacea group had a greater increase in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, suggesting enhanced free radical scavenging.
Echinacea and recurrent respiratory infections
Use of echinacea was shown to reduce the risk of recurrent respiratory infections, with an even greater effect seen in individuals considered to have a higher susceptibility, stress level, or immunological weakness.
A 2015 meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) considered the impact of echinacea on recurrent respiratory tract infections and their complications. Six RTCs (including 2458 individuals) were found that had the methodological quality level necessary for consideration in the analysis; of these, three considered an ethanol extract, two the pressed juice, and one, a glycerol extract. Use of echinacea was shown to reduce the risk of recurrent respiratory infections, with an even greater effect seen in two of the studies in individuals considered to have a higher susceptibility, stress level, or immunological weakness., Complications of pneumonia, otitis media, and tonsillitis/pharyngitis were also approximately halved with echinacea treatment. Of these, the greatest decrease was seen in pneumonia, with the incidence being approximately 65% less in those treated with echinacea.
Echinacea and pediatrics
Echinacea also has been studied in multiple clinical trials focused on a pediatric population, including children as young as one year of age. In one randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of children over the fall/winter period, it was found that, compared to placebo, treatment with echinacea during upper respiratory infections (URIs) significantly reduced the risk of developing a subsequent URI by 28%. Echinacea was not shown to reduce URI duration or severity when taken for treatment of URIs, although the children taking echinacea had significantly fewer URIs compared to the placebo group over the four month observational period.
Children taking echinacea had significantly fewer upper respiratory infections compared to the placebo group.
A study assessing the effectivity of a combination of echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C, administered daily for 12 weeks, found that the preparation significantly reduced the number of illness episodes and days with fever compared to placebo. Another study of echinacea as a monotherapy in children had methodological errors, thus the impact of echinacea on recovery from a URI could not be accurately assessed.
Safety of echinacea
A 2016 review of the safety data of oral echinacea preparations concludes “Altogether, the different evaluated Echinacea preparations are well-tolerated herbal medicines in the management in children and adults alike,” however, does note that caution should be exercised in children with atopy and asthma. In a few placebo-controlled studies surveyed in this review the rates of reporting of mild gastrointestinal symptoms, headache or dizziness, or fatigue was higher in the groups receiving echinacea, but not dramatically so. In one study of children, it was observed that a greater percentage of the 200 children receiving echinacea developed a rash (7%, compared to 2.7% in the placebo group), and there were two occurrences of respiratory stridor leading to the withdrawal of these children from the study. However, in other large studies of pediatric populations, echinacea was well tolerated.,,
Although many think of echinacea as a therapy for acute or short-term use, there are many studies in which it has been used for longer periods, even in children. No abnormalities have been seen with daily supplementation up to four months’ time, aside from an aversion to its taste.,
Seeking a quality echinacea product is paramount, as a 2003 study well elucidates. Of 59 echinacea products surveyed, purchased from retail outlets in Denver, CO, it was found that 10% had no measurable echinacea content, 48% incorrectly identified the species present, and even 57% of the 21 standardized preparations did not contain that which was stated.
Available studies suggest echinacea enhances the immune response in a balanced fashion, offering protection for adults and children alike from the everyday sniffles and sneezes of cold and flu season. As we seek to minimize sick days from work and school due to these common seasonal issues, echinacea may be one to keep handy in the back pocket.Click here to see References
 Flannery MA. From Rudbeckia to Echinacea: the emergence of the purple cone flower in modern therapeutics. Pharm Hist. 1999 Jan 1;41(2):52-9.
 von Unruh V. Echinacea angustifolia and Inula helenium in the treatment of tuberculosis. NEMA. 1913:63-75.
 Reider CA, et al. Inadequacy of immune health nutrients: intakes in US adults, the 2005-2016 NHANES. Nutrients. 2020 Jun 10;12(6):E1735.
 Barnes J, et al. Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;57(8):929-54.
 Sharifi-Rad M, et al. Echinacea plants as antioxidant and antibacterial agents: from traditional medicine to biotechnological applications. Phytother Res. 2018 Sep;32(9):1653-63.
 Bone K. Echinacea: what makes it work. Alternative Medicine Review. 1997;2(2):87.
 Vimalanathan S, et al. Echinacea purpurea aerial parts contain multiple antiviral compounds. Pharm Biol. 2005 Jan 1;43(9):740-5.
 Tyler VE. Pharmaceutical botany in the US—1900-1962: its heyday, decline, and renascence. Pharm Hist. 1996 Jan 1;38(1):20-3.
 Burger RA, et al. Echinacea-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1997 Jul;19(7):371-9.
 Sullivan AM, et al. Echinacea-induced macrophage activation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2008;30(3):553-74.
 Rininger JA, et al. Immunopharmacological activity of Echinacea preparations following simulated digestion on murine macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2000 Oct;68(4):503-10.
 Mishima S, et al. Antioxidant and immuno-enhancing effects of Echinacea purpurea. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Jul;27(7):1004-9.
 Cundell DR, et al. The effect of aerial parts of Echinacea on the circulating white cell levels and selected immune functions of the aging male Sprague-Dawley rat. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Jul;3(7):1041-8.
 Agnew LL, et al. Echinacea intake induces an immune response through altered expression of leucocyte hsp70, increased white cell counts and improved erythrocyte antioxidant defences. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2005 Aug;30(4):363-9.
 Fujii F, et al. The immunostimulating effect by ingestion of an Echinacea purpurea preparation. Pharmacometrics. 2011;80(5):79-87.
 Barrett B. Medicinal properties of Echinacea: a critical review. Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):66-86.
 Zhai Z, et al. Enhancement of innate and adaptive immune functions by multiple Echinacea species. J Med Food. 2007 Sep;10(3):423-34.
 Park S, et al. Echinacea purpurea protects against restraint stress-induced immunosuppression in BALB/c mice. J Med Food. 2018 Mar;21(3):261-8.
 Brousseau M, Miller SC. Enhancement of natural killer cells and increased survival of aging mice fed daily Echinacea root extract from youth. Biogerontology. 2005;6(3):157-63.
 Steinmüller C, et al. Polysaccharides isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea enhance the resistance of immunosuppressed mice against systemic infections with Candida albicans and Listeria monocytogenes. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1993 Jul;15(5):605-14.
 Linde K, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD000530.
 Shah SA, et al. Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007 Jul;7(7):473-80.
 Schoop R, et al. Echinacea in the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis. Clin Ther. 2006 Feb;28(2):174-83.
 Jawad M, et al. Safety and efficacy profile of Echinacea purpurea to prevent common cold episodes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:841315.
 Goel V, et al. A proprietary extract from the echinacea plant (Echinacea purpurea) enhances systemic immune response during a common cold. Phytother Res. 2005 Aug;19(8):689-94.
 Schapowal A, et al. Echinacea reduces the risk of recurrent respiratory tract infections and complications: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Adv Ther. 2015 Mar;32(3):187-200.
 Schoeneberger C. The influence of the immunostimulating effects of pressed juice from Echinacea purpurea on the course and severity of cold infections. Forum Immunologie. 1992;8:18–22.
 Weber W, et al. Echinacea purpurea for prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Dec;11(6):1021-6.
 Taylor JA, et al. Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Dec 3;290(21):2824-30.
 Cohen HA, et al. Effectiveness of an herbal preparation containing echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C in preventing respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Mar;158(3):217-21.
 Saunders PR, et al. Echinacea purpurea L. in children: safety, tolerability, compliance, and clinical effectiveness in upper respiratory tract infections. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;85(11):1195-9.
 Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Bauer R. Review and assessment of medicinal safety data of orally used Echinacea preparations. Planta Med. 2016 Jan;82(1-2):17-31.
 Götte K, Roschke I. A supportive measure in the treatment of acute infections of the respiratory tract in children with recurring infections of the upper respiratory tract. PÄD Praktische Pädiatrie. 2001;7:1-7.
 Gilroy CM, et al. Echinacea and truth in labeling. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Mar 24;163(6):699-704.